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Aether and Einstein(10 January 2021):-

Aether and Einstein(10 January 2021):-

Einstein had come close to the reality after publishing his general relativity theory in 1915. But his general relativity theory which is essentially invalid prevented him to move further to realize the truth.

To realize the above statement we have to have some information of before and after the general relativity publishing time and so let us have some of that information given below as presented by modern day scientific communities.
• The concept of aether was used in several theories to explain several natural phenomena, such as the traveling of light and gravity. In the late 19th century, physicists postulated that aether permeated all throughout space, providing a medium through which light could travel in a vacuum.
Propagation of light waves was then assumed to require the existence of a waving medium; in the case of light waves, this was considered to be a hypothetical luminiferous aether. However, the various attempts to establish the properties of this hypothetical medium yielded contradictory results.

• The famous Michelson–Morley experiment of 1887 showed no differential influence of Earth's motions through the hypothetical aether on the speed of light and this result has been interpreted as meaning that no such luminiferous aether exists. By the 1900s, physicists had to conclude the aether did not exist.
Einstein wrote, "If the Michelson–Morley experiment had not brought us into serious embarrassment, no one would have regarded the relativity theory as a (halfway) redemption."

• Einstein's views on the aether: Quoted below from his later papers, Einstein identified the term aether with "properties of space", a terminology that is not widely used. Einstein stated that in general relativity the "aether" is not absolute anymore, as the geodesic and therefore the structure of spacetime depends on the presence of matter.
Newton might no less well have called his absolute space “Ether”; what is essential is merely that besides observable objects, another thing, which is not perceptible, must be looked upon as real, to enable acceleration or rotation to be looked upon as something real.

— Albert Einstein, Ether and the Theory of Relativity (1920)

“We may assume the existence of an aether; only we must give up ascribing a definite state of motion to it.”

— Albert Einstein, May 5, 1920.

Thus the aether of general relativity differs from those of classical mechanics and special relativity in that it is not ‘absolute’ but determined, in its locally variable characteristics, by ponderable matter.

— Albert Einstein, Über den Äther (1924)

• By 1929, however, the work of Hubble and others had shown that our universe is expanding. This is readily described by the expanding cosmological solutions found by Friedmann in 1922, which do not require a cosmological constant. Lemaître used these solutions to formulate the earliest version of the Big Bang models, in which our universe has evolved from an extremely hot and dense earlier state. Einstein later declared the cosmological constant the biggest blunder of his life.


Now we have relevent information and statements of Einstein himself as presented in above. Einstein’s statements clearly show that he himself produced contradictory statements about his own concept of general relativity.
The failure of Michelson–Morley experiment of 1887 to detect aether led Einstein to deny the presence and existence of luminiferous aether which was supposed to be a medium for propagation of light and gravity as per Newton and post Newton physicists.
But this denial of existence of aether produced a huge unbearable pain in the neck of Einstein. Non existence of aether emerged as an empty space existence inside the universe and legitimate claims raised up that logically and scientifically empty space cannot be curved or distorted.
Einstein understood and realized his own blunder then and tried to rectify himself by following later statements as we find in above.
In 1920 Einstein’s stand was that beside observable objects i.e. moons, planets, stars and others there is something else which is responsible for objects motions and assumed the aether existence rejecting its own motion property.
As per Einstein another thing, which is not perceptible, must be looked upon as real, to enable acceleration or rotation to be looked upon as something real. This clearly indicates that some imperceptible real thing is there in the universe which enable rotation and revolving motions of observable objects, leading to another clear indication that the observed motions of observable objects are not their own but caused by another imperceptible real thing.
Here Einstein himself agreed, accepted and declared that observable celestial objects motions are not of their own as something else real is required to enable their motion and as he also declared that existing aether has no motion property, so it is easily understood that Einstein’s idea then was the existence of spacetime which cause the motion of objects as mentioned in general relativity theory.
Now this became more complicated as with such an idea of Einstein it becomes the situation where simulteniously aether and spacetime both are present inside the universe with separate property, aether has no motion and spacetime has limited motion caused by the mass-energy distortion. Einstein realized that this idea of his is also not logically and scientifically feasible and viable.
So he revaulted again in 1924 mentioning that aether of general relativity is not ‘absolute’ but determined, in its locally variable characteristics, by ponderable matter. Here we find that Einstein himself rejected his own idea of 1920 and declared that aether has character which can vary locally by matter. Here it is absolutely clear that Einstein himself rejected his own idea of dual presence of aether and spacetime of 1920 and made spacetime concept as invalid and aether concept partially valid.

The aether concept was originated and evolved from Plato and Aristotle onwards. Let us see how?
“‘The first element however, located in the celestial regions and heavenly bodies, moved circularly and had none of the qualities the terrestrial classical elements had. It was neither hot nor cold, neither wet nor dry. With this addition the system of elements was extended to five and later commentators started referring to the new first one as the fifth and also called it aether, a word that Aristotle had not used.
Aristotle also noted that celestial spheres made of aether held the stars and planets. The idea of aethereal spheres moving with natural circular motion led to Aristotle's explanation of the observed orbits of stars and planets in perfectly circular motion.’”

Here we find Aristotle did not use the term aether and did not mention it as fifth element. But he mentioned that moving celestial spheres are having another element which is the first element. The other four terrestrial elements are earth, water, air and fire. Now we know those four terrestrial elements are composite elements made of different molecules and atoms.
So after Aristotle scientific community distorted the first element concept into fifth element and aether concept then Newton onwards the scientific community further distorted that concept as luminiferous aether which is manufactured as a medium to carry light waves. Einstein further distorted that concept as the first element has locally variable characteristics, influenced by matter.
Michelson–Morley experiment of 1887 is considered as historically most failure one, but in essence and truth it is the most successful experiment in the history of science. This experiment successfully disproved and rejected absolutely wrong distortion of the first element concept into luminiferous aether concept from Newton onwards.
The blunder of scientific community was to manufacture the idea of the requirement of a medium to propagate light and so Michelson–Morley experiment of 1887 showed that there was no such medium. It was a serious embarrassment because the then scientific community made such a blunder of distorting the property of the first element.
Light still propagates through out the universe and scientific community still did not find any medium for such light propagation and thus light propagation is still a mystery. There are two ideas about light, one is that it is an electromagnetic wave and the other is that it is composed of particles called as ‘Photon’. There are also two ideas about the mass of photon, one is zero rest mass and the other is non-zero rest mass. So photon could be understood as either energy or matter and whatever the case may be it is a baryonic thing which has a property of motion in wave pattern. Sound is not a matter nor even an energy but a kind of force and it requires another matter, air molecules as a medium to propagate.

Air molecules are matter and it has its own motion property. If you place a certain small amount of air in a vacuum chamber no matter where the chamber is situated in side a rotating field or inside an orbiting field, air molecules shall move themselves in all parts of the vacuum chamber and such air shall not need any other medium to propagate. Air propagation is not a wave like propagation, but it is a motion.
Water waves are also a motion of water particles and to propagate such water waves water particles does not require any other medium and water particles themselves act as medium.
Light particles propagation is also a motion and in wave pattern as scientists observed. If air molecules being matter have motion property of their own without a medium then why light particles, being another kind of baryonic thing and much more subtle than air molecules, should not have motion property of their own without any medium?
As water particles can propagate its own waves without any other medium why light particles cannot propagate the same way? So light propagate itself without any medium, luminiferous aether or whatsoever and it is evident with star lights. Water particles exert a push force to adjacent water particles to create waves and similarly light particles exert a push force to the front line light particles to create its own waves and propagate without requiring any medium.
Some present relativists claim that if any aether do exist it would require some ridiculous properties as follows.

The ridiculous properties required of the Aether.
1.Speed of a wave is ratio of stiffness to density of medium. 2. Use Roemer’s speed to find B, p for the Aether. 3. With B for steel, need density 50,000 times less than hydrogen gas. 4. And invisible. 5. And permeate all forms of matter. 6. And offer no resistance to the motion of planets.
This is a ridiculous claim of scientists and shows poverty of their scientific thoughts. Point 1 to 3 regard aehter as a medium whose density would be 50,000 times less than hydrogen gas. This is the same blunder of considering aether as a medium like luminiferous aether and we have already discussed in above about the non requirement of such medium.
It appears that present day scientists have shut their eyes and ears so much that they even cannot see and hear the voice of Einstein of 1924 where he himself pronounced that aether of general relativity has locally variable characteristics. We are not saying Einstein was 100% right in this context but he accepted, going beyond the spacetime concept, the presence and existence of something which is responsible for celestial body motions.
Hydrogen is a gas and a baryonic matter. Why should the aether, if present and existed, has to be less denser than hydrogen for any reason? Modern science brought non baryonic dark matter and dark energy concept and as a matter of fact light gloriously travels through the universe regions where such hypothetical existence of dark matter and dark energy is claimed by scientists themselves. So why not light can go through aether with whatever density it has and as no one claimed aether as a baryonic matter or energy?
Visibility and permeability of aether should not be a vital point as the same question also arises for dark matter and dark energy as they are not visible yet and no one knows whether they are permeable or not and they exist or not. If aether like something exists and that something do not permeate all forms of matter then the required property of permeability of aether claim would become invalid.
In terms of planetary motion resistance, present day scientists still blindly sticking to the obsolate idea of planetary motion and from that point of view such ridiculous claim for aether property is being maintained that it has to offer no resistance to motion of planets. When in 1924 Einstein accepts and admits that aether of general relativity locally varies it’s character and become cause of motion of observable objects then there is no point arises for the resistance of planetary motion as observable objects do not have their own motion which is already agreed and accepted by Einstein himself.
The Michelson–Gale–Pearson experiment (1925) result was interpreted as something existing above the earth surface which rotate once in 24 hours. If that claim is right then it would stand as an evidence of rotation of a field which enable the earth body to rotate.
More discussions are present in the first book ‘Unique Phenomena’ of Mission Truth Inetrnational.

Thanks for reading this article and keep visiting this blog page for coming articles.

Einstein and spacetime(06 February 2021):-

Einstein realized in his lifetime after publishing his general relativity theory that there is no existence of anything which is said to be spacetime by his teacher Minkowsky. To rectify his misconception which he had during general relativity formulation he proposed his modified conception about spacetime as given in below.

“If we imagine the gravitational field to be removed, there does not remain any ( flat ) spacetime, but absolutely nothing.”
“Spacetime does not claim existence on its own, but only as a structural quality of the gravitational field.”
---- Albert Einstein.

Another statement of Einstein is also very important as he confessed himself as the following.
“The job of physical theories is to approximate as close as possible to the truth of physical reality.”
---- Albert Einstein.

According to the modified concept of Einstein himself about the spacetime, it is very much clear that there is no physical existence of the so called ‘spacetime’.
As per the same modified statement of Einstein we understand that it is claimed that the spacetime is the structural quality of the gravitational field and if gravitational field does not exist then there is absolutely nothing exists inside the universe and certainly beside the observable objects.
This very claim indicates that there is nothing existing inside the universe except a gravitational field which has a structural quality. Now an instant question arises that what is that gravitational field and how such gravitational field develops or developed?
In his general relativity theory Einstein declared that mass, energy distort and make curvature of the spacetime which develops a force and that force is the gravity and so in that context, gravitational field develops due to the distortion of spacetime.
If spacetime does not have its own separate existence then according to the general relativity theory gravitational field cannot develope as there is nothing to distort. That indicates to a situation where observable celestial objects are present inside the universe which is empty and has nothing in it except those observable objects which are moving by themselves.
This situation contradicts the statement of Einstein which says, ‘what is essential is merely that besides observable objects, another thing, which is not perceptible, must be looked upon as real, to enable acceleration or rotation to be looked upon as something real.

— Albert Einstein, Ether and the Theory of Relativity (1920)’
Now in this position what we can realize that if spaetime does not have its own existence then gravitational field cannot develope and so if the gravitional field, as claimed by Einstein, has to have an existence inside the universe all over, then such gravitational field has to be generated by propagation of the innate gravity property of the observable objects as claimed by Newton and there is no other option left to be found out.
See the situation now. Einstein in his search of the truth had to revolve 360 degree and had to come back to Newton’s concept again after the general relativity theory declaration where he claimed that celestial objects does not have there own gravity property.
We are not saying that Newton was right, but it is to show that how Einstein made selfcontradictory opinions as it now appears that he was himself confused when he was not finding the truth and made everyone of this world also confused.
But one great thing about Einstein is that he did not stop his search of the truth. He was not himself satisfied about the general relativity theory and further tried to continue his efforts to find the truth. He knew well that his theory was not the truth of physical reality and so he stated, ‘The job of physical theories is to approximate as close as possible to the truth of physical reality.”---- Albert Einstein.
Now it becomes a point that what is actually the truth of the physical reality regarding the universal structure? Further elaborate discussion regarding this subject is available in the book ‘Unique Phenomena’.
This is just a simple justification of the spacetime concept as like the above article ‘Aether and Einstein’ and not to be confused as any declaration. Evaluative and evidential and more comprehensive justification is given in the book ‘Unique Phenomena’ and also with confirmative declaration.

The next article is ‘Newton and Gravity’, so keep visiting this page.

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